Asking Questions and Defining Problems
A practice where one has to ask and refine questions that lead to descriptions and explanations of how the natural and designed world works and which can be empirically tested.
Developing and Using Models
A practice of engineering is to use and construct models as helpful tools for representing ideas and explanations. These tools include diagrams, drawings, physical replicas, mathematical representations, analogies, and computer simulations.
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Engineers plan and carry out investigations in the field, working collaboratively as well as individually. Their investigations are systematic and require clarifying what counts as data and identifying variables or parameters.
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Investigations produce data that must be analyzed in order to derive meaning. Because data patterns and trends are not always obvious, People use a range of tools—including tabulation, graphical interpretation, visualization, and statistical analysis—to identify the significant features and patterns in the data. Scientists identify sources of error in the investigations and calculate the degree of certainty in the results. Modern technology makes the collection of large data sets much easier, providing secondary sources for analysis.
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Argumentation is the process by which explanations and solutions are reached.